Generally, a fluid prepared from a mixture of sand, cement, water, or a liquid prepared from a mixture of chemical substances for waterproofing is called grout. But gravel is also used in grout along with sand, cement, and water to strengthen large areas like the core of concrete blocks.
Grout materials are used in a variety of ways to strengthen building structures during construction. such as pile foundation, ground anchor, under reaming, dam construction, road construction, etc. Apart from this, grout is also used to overcome the problem of water seeping into the roof and exterior walls of the building and to fix the tiles to the floor and walls. The method of using grout material in various ways in construction work is called grouting. Let's see detailed information related to grouting.
The method of using grout to repair cracks in concrete, fill gaps in tiles, seal joints and stabilize the soil, etc. is called grouting.
Grouting is used to provide additional strength to a building's foundation and structure. It is also used to repair cracks in concrete, fill gaps in tiles, seal joints, and stabilize soils.
In building construction, the material of grouting is prepared in different ways depending on the pile foundation, ground anchor, under reaming, dam construction, road construction, and waterproofing of the building, etc. The types of grouting are as follows:
Cement grouting is used for high permeability land, for which the grout is prepared using water, sand, and cement.
Cement grouting is used to provide deposit/stabilization and strengthen to a wide variety of structures such as bridges, marine applications, dams, and rock anchors.
The grout material is then injected in liquid form with high pressure to fill the hole in a specified radius around the area used for grouting. The viscosity of the grout material is increased by reducing the water-cement ratio as required. The grouting process is then completed by making a second hole between the primary holes to ensure complete grouting of the area.
Chemical grouting is a form of permeation grouting. This type of grouting mix usually includes acrylamides, polyurethanes, acrylates, epoxy, and sodium silicates.
There are two main processes of chemical grouting::
In this process, the pipe is inserted into the ground through a drill. After this, the chemical material is pumped through the pipe in such a way one is followed by another into the soil. So that in the process of a chemical reaction the soil can take a solid form at a rapid speed.
In this method, a chemical mixture of grouting material is prepared in advance and then poured underground. This process takes time for the structure to harden. A one-shot process of chemical grouting is used for boreholes.
A structure is constructed at the site to be mined. Structural grouting is used to fill the gaps between concrete and rock structures and fill the voids between mined materials. Apart from this, structural grouting is also used to fill cracks in rocks and joints of rocks in underground tunnels.
Uses of Structural Grouting
Structural grouting is commonly done in tunnels and underground structures.
Bentonite is the major component in drilling muds or fluids used in rotary drilling. The suitability of sodium bentonite as a grouting material is 15 times its dry volume when hydrated. Due to its swelling and gel-like permeability property, it is suitable for filling gaps between the casings.
Use of Bentonite Grouting
Sodium bentonite grout is typically used for sealing and covering unutilized wells, sealing of earthen structures, and water-proofing.
Due to the high montmorillonite (an aluminum-rich clay mineral of the smectite group, containing some sodium and magnesium.) content and the ability to swell on water absorption, this grout is suitable for grouting of annular space between boreholes created during good construction.
Hot bitumen grouting is a special type of grouting in which molten hot coral is used as the grouting material.
Uses of Hot-Bitumen Grouting
Hot-bitumen grouting is often used to cut high volumes of underground water flow. The key characteristic of hot bitumen grout is its temperature-dependent viscosity.
Epoxy grouts are also known as reactive resin grouts. This type of grouting material is made from a cement-based mixture. It is not waterproof but has the ability to absorb water when wet.
Uses of Resin Grouting
Due to its stain resistance, durability, and hygienic property, it is suitable for most usable places such as hospitals, worktops, kitchen counters, and food production facilities. It is best for sealing ceramic tiles used for floors and walls.
The basic arrangement of grouting is ensured by mechanical techniques like high-pressure water jetting, breakers, blast cleaning, scribbles, etc. After this, the concrete layer has to be soaked continuously for 2-6 hours with clean water. This creates a dry layer of water-absorbed concrete during the grouting process.
surface spread/disperse ratio
Water: Powder = 0.14 to 0.16 by weight (4.2 liters to 4.8 liters of water per 30 kg bag).
the ratio of surface mix
Water: Powder = 0.12 to 0.14 by weight (3.6 liters to 4.2 liters of water per 30 kg bag).
Mix the grout powder with water in the correct ratio using an instrument with a low speed (maximum 500 rpm) electric drill, so as not to allow too much air to enter the mixture.
Pour about 80 to 90% of the water into the mixing drum. Then add the remaining water.
Depending on the desired consistency and flowability, the mixing ratio can be adjusted. Do not use a concrete tilting mixer.